Civil rights and social movements in the Americas post-1945 This section examines the origins, nature, challenges and achievements of civil rights and social movements after 1945. Causes of some of these movements may be pre-1945. These movements represented the attempts to achieve equality for groups that were not recognized or accepted as full members of society, and they challenged established authority and attitudes.
Indigenous peoples and civil rights in the Americas
African Americans and the civil rights movement: origins, tactics and organizations; the US Supreme Court and legal challenges to segregation in education; ending of segregation in the south (1955–1980)
Role of Dr Martin Luther King Jr in the civil rights movement; the rise of radical African American activism (1965–1968): Black Panthers; Black Power and Malcolm X; role of governments in civil rights movements in the Americas
Feminist movements in the Americas; reasons for emergence; impact and significance
Hispanic American movement in the United States; Cesar Chavez; immigration reform
Youth culture and protests of the 1960s and 1970s: characteristics and manifestation of a counter- culture